Even in the event English was a great Germanic vocabulary, and more than of the basic words comes out-of Old English, there’s also a sizeable vocabulary one comes out of Relationship (Latin and you may French). Most other affixes, particularly “-ation”, much more minimal.
Based on Hans Marchand, from the Classes and you can Brand of Present-Big date English Word formation (College or university regarding Alabama Press, 1969), the suffix -ize happens originally throughout the Greek -izo. Of many words stop with this specific suffix enacted from Ecclesiastical Greek for the Latin, where, by the fourth century, they’d feel based since the verbs toward ending -izare, eg barbarizare, catechizare, christianizare. Within the Dated French we find many particularly verbs, that belong mainly into ecclesistical areas: baptiser (11th c.), canoniser (13th c.), exorciser (14th c.).
The original -ize terms and conditions available during the English is financing which have both a great French and you will Latin pattern including baptize (1297), catechize, and you will plan out (both 15th c.) By the end of your own sixteenth century, although not, we see many new formations when you look at the English, like bastardize, equalize, popularize, and you will womanize. The latest official and semantic habits was in fact exactly like the individuals regarding the fresh new lent French and Latin versions, however, using the newest renewed examination of Greek, new educated had become so much more accustomed their vocabulary and you can used the latest designs from Old Greek word formation freely.
Ranging from 1580 and you can 1700, new procedures of literary works, treatments, absolute research and you can theology delivered a great amount of the newest terminology into words. A few of the terms nevertheless being used now become criticize, fertilize, humanize, naturalize, satirize, sterilize, and you will signify. The organization away from technology contributed vast amounts of -ize structures from 19th century and you will for the twentieth.
This new -ize terminology obtained of the students from inside the inside group 9 many years in the past reveal that -ize is close to entirely limited to Relationship code, the only exclusions we receive are womanize and you can winterize. Even when most modern English sound system aren’t knowingly alert to and therefore terms and conditions inside their words come from and this origin, he’s respected it improvement in coining the fresh words.
Constituent Structure out-of Terms
The fresh component morphemes regarding a phrase will likely be arranged to your a great branching otherwise hierarchical framework, possibly entitled a tree framework. Consider the word useless . It contains about three morphemes:
- prefix “un-“
- verb stem “use”
- suffix “-able”
What is the design? Will it be earliest “use” + “-able” making “usable”, after that together with “un-” and make “unusable”? or is it first “un-” + “use” and make “unuse”, following in addition to “-able” and make “unusable”? As the “unuse” cannot can be found from inside the English, whenever you are “usable” does, we choose the basic build, hence represents the fresh forest shown below.
Which data was supported by the general behavior of them affixes. There’s a great prefix “un-” you to definitely connects so you can adjectives to make adjectives which have a poor meaning (“unhurt”, “untrue”, “unhandy”, etc.). And there’s a good suffix “-able” you to definitely connects to help you verbs and you will models adjectives (“believable”, “fixable”, “readable”). Thus giving you the analysis envisioned over. There is no way to mix good prefix “un-” yourself into verb “use”, so that the most other logically-it is possible to construction wouldn’t performs.
- prefix “un-“
- verb stem “lock”
- suffix “-able”
Now, even in the event, a small imagine shows all of us there are a few different definitions for this keyword: one to add up to this new left-hand contour, meaning “perhaps not lockable,” another you to definitely add up to just the right-hand figure, meaning “able to be unlocked.”